THE ISLAMIC VIEW OF THE HALAL (LAWFUL) AND THE HARAM (UNLAWFUL)
What we learn from the Qur`an is that Adam was anew entrant in the universe who had anew role to play and he was, therefore, endowed with distinctive qualities which the other species lacked and his most distinguishing quality is that he has been made a trustee of a free personality to fulfill the desires of Allah on the earth. The angels apprehended that since Adam had been fashioned out of clay, he would, re misuse the authority Allah had delegated to him. He would thus spread corruption and shed blood. The angels were at a loss to know the necessity of the creation of Adam, when they in countless numbers were there, ready to carry out the commands of Allah.
Allah, the Creator of the universe had before Him a special purpose fulfillment of which He was going to create Adam. The idea behind to manifest that the material world is not profane and the natural of man are not ignoble as man is primarily a spiritual being inspite of the fact that it is the material body in which man`s soul is treasured. The man would no doubt commit evil because of lapse on his part but absolutely succumb to low desires, he would rather live up to ideals as the true servant of Allah, even though he has been given freedom to commit evil, if he so desires. The man would, therefore, not only elevate his material life to the spiritual height, and prove that there is nothing profane in the world, but would also show by his deeds that he is the faithful servant of the Lord, though he is free to act otherwise. The apprehension of the angels that man would always spread corruption and shed blood has been proved to be baseless. Man has always been striving for the better, for the peace and prosperity and and his superiority and delivering the goods and it is on the basis of these positive virtues and urge for constructive work that mankind has been able to create a social order. There could have been no idea of corporate life, if man had been corrupt by his very nature, always ready to act treacherously. That the man leads a social life is an undeniable proof of the fact that the good in man significantly predominates the evil in him, He, at times without doubt yields to low desires and behaves like a brute, but it is not his real nature, it is a lapse on his part and there is always a yearing in him to revert to the original good in him.
It should be remembered that it is too much to expect infallibility from the man, as he has been made of the stuff which can be tempted to commit evil, but his noble self, however, which is in fact his real self, revolts against evil. There are occasions when he fails to resist these temptations and falls in their snares, but he feels remorseful and strengthens his ego in order to safeguard himself against this mishap on another occasion. Unless the man is completely devoid of moral sense, there is a strong urge in him to fight against evil and promote good. Man cannot banish evil altogether and behave like an angel, but he is primarily a champion of good and a fighter against evil, and it is with this nature that he has been created by Allah. He, therefore, falls in a distinctive category in Allah`s scheme of creation---distinctive from lifeless matter, from the angels, and from jinn and his role is different from all these categories, which if put briefly may be stated: His is the role of vicegerent of Allah upon the earth, being the trustee of the free personality.
The distinguishing characteristic of man is that he is given freedom to do or not to do an act, but despite his freedom he behaves as a God fearing person and whenever he commits fault, he turns to Allah in repentance and thus regains his spiritual and moral height. This submission to Allah`s commands, and close and intimate contact with Him amidst irresistible temptations, is the distinctive feature of man Which entitles him to be `the crown of creation.`
Adam was first made to live in paradise so that he might be fully acquainted with his real abode where he would return after leading a life of piety. He was also commanded not to go near a tree in order to instruct him that it is in obedience to the commands of the Lord that his success lies his superiority to the angels is established. Though he can exercise freedom to behave otherwise, yet what is rightly expected of him is the humble submission to the Commands of the Great Master, and in case he defies them; he would be amongst the transgressors and wrongdoers.
The "forbidden tree" was a test for Adam to keep his desire well within the limits set by Allah and not to transgress them for it would offend against his own good self and make the Lord angry.
The Satan tempted both Adam and Eve to eat the forbidden fruit by telling them that there was no harm in eating it. It would in fact prove, he argued, to be the effective means for perpetuating their stay in Paradise and they were thus induced to e