As for vice and virtue, Islam considers the lowest grade of vice that conduct which causes injury to others; for instance, all aggression against the person, property, interests or honor of fellow being. Most of these are crimes; the rest are civil wrongs and are punishable. All of them are moral offenses. As for virtue, there are three grades of virtues prescribed by Islam: The first (lowest) is described as equity or equitable dealing. This means to do good equal to the good one receives from others. Furthermore, it means that when one suffers a wrong, one should not impose or insist upon the imposition of a penalty in excess of the wrong suffered. The second is that of conscious beneficence, the doing of greater good in return for good and the doing of good without expectation of any return, and forgiveness of wrong if in the circumstances, may reasonably be expected that forgiveness would help the wrongdoer reform himself. The third is the instinctive beneficence that flows out from one as love and affection flow out toward one`s kindred. Cultivation to having been acquired deliberately, -it would be the highest moral quality; it would manifest itself toward a wrongdoer not only in forgiveness, but also in benevolence.
Social customs may constitute a hindrance in the way of moral development. In the scale of values, moral progress must be placed higher than conformity to social customs and habits, which have no value beyond the fact that they have been observed over a long period of time. Such customs become burdensome impositions and should be discarded. All avenues from which evil might should be watched and guarded.
Islam inspires faith in vivid realization of the existence of a Beneficent Creator, without partners, associates or equals. Islam teaches that each human being can and should establish direct communion with Allah through faith, through acceptance of Divine Guidance and through righteous conduct. On the basis of man`s relationship to his fellow beings through God, the Creator of all, it lays the foundations of a true universal brotherhood, excluding the privilege and discrimination based on color, race, nationality or an office, status or wealth.
In short, Islam sets forth and places at man`s disposal a most effective means of achieving the purpose of life. Of all Allah`s numberless bounties bestowed upon mankind it is one of the greatest and most precious, and it is indispensable for the beneficent growth of man in the epoch now unfolding before him.
The social values in the Islamic community ensure strong and lasting relationship and interaction of people based on equality, doing what is right, and give consideration to the rights and privileges of others. We can see that the social, moral and spiritual values propagated by Islam, the essence of which was observed during the rise and expansion in the early history of Islam is applicable to the present and future for all mankind.(.(Ishaq Y. Qutub, Ph.D.)