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 Sharia`a Permissibility of Salawat and Salam Part-4

IMAM NAWAWI`S (RAHMAT ALLAHI `ALAIH) COMMENTARY

The answer is in two beautiful ways:

1. The two Imams, Abu Bakr ibn Abi `Asim and Abu Musa al-Asbahani (may Allah be pleased with them),said that this is a weak Hadith which cannot be used as a proof. Abu Bakr (rahmat allahi `alaih) said: "This Hadith cannot be established and its sub-narrators are unknown." I say: to this is added the fact that it is "mudtarib" (disordered -- see above), and it would suffice that only one of these two factors were present to grade it as weak, let alone two.

2. The Hadith in itself is crystal-clear as to its intent as opposed to that of the rest: namely, it PURPORTS TO CONDEMN THOSE WHO STAND FOR THE PURPOSE OF AGGRANDIZEMENT. That is why he said: "Do not get up in the manner of the foreigners who aggrandize each others." There is no doubt as to what is being condemned. And Allah knows best.

Our comments: The emphasis of this Hadith is in the words, "in the manner of the foreigners who aggrandize (flatter) each other". If the directive of the Prophet (sallallahu `alaihi wasallam) was to forbid standing (Qiyaam), the words "Do not get up !" would have sufficed. There would have been no reason to qualify the statement with the words, "... in the manner of the foreigners who aggrandize (flatter) each other". The disbelieving foreigners (especially the Persians) would stand up for their undeserving kings and leaders in order to flatter their ego. It is this that the above Hadith condemns.

4. From (Nafi`) Abu Bakra (radi allahu `anhu): The Prophet (sallallahu `alaihi wasallam) said: "Let no man stand from his seat for another." Abu Musa al-Isbahani narrated it with his chain. Al-Hafiz Abu al-Qasim Ibn `Asakir said in his book al-Atraf that Abu Dawud narrated in the book of Adab (4:258). The chain has Abu `Abd Allah Mawla Al Abi Burda, who is unknown. See al-Taqrib #8215.

IMAM NAWAWI`S (RAHMAT ALLAHI `ALAIH) COMMENTARY:

The answer to this is the same two answers as the preceding section... There is possibly a third way to answer it reasonably. The meaning would be: "Do not get up from the place of prayer, of listening to a sermon and to remembrance and knowledge etc., for it is disliked that one should give up one`s seat in such cases, or leave it and take another farther away from the Imam.


The same is true of all gestures that are similar to these, and we consider this to muster the general agreement of scholars, as opposed to giving up one`s food and drink other things related to one`s personal lot: to give those up is a most desirable thing, one of the marks of the righteous and among the manners of saints and gnostics, concerning which this verse was revealed: "They prefer others above themselves though poverty become their lot" (59:9).

The difference between the two types of sacrifice is that the right, in the person`s nearness, belongs to Allah the Exalted, and to transfer it is not permissible, as opposed to food and the like where the right belongs to the person, although in some cases it belongs to Allah even then...

Our Comments : This Hadith has nothing to do with standing out of respect (Qiyaam). Below is the Hadith in question that is often quoted : Sa`id bin Abi al-Hasan said : When Abu Bakrah came to us to give some evidence, a man got up from his place, but he refused to sit in it saying: The Prophet (sallallahu `alaihi wasallam) forbade this, ... (Sunan Abu Dawood, Pg 1349, Volume 3, # 4809). As it is seen this Hadith has nothing to do with the subject matter. It is concerned with giving your seat to another person.
5) USING THE `HARF-E-NIDAA` WHEN RECITING SALAWAT AND SALAAM


The `Harf-e-Nidaa` means - to use the pronoun for addressing the second person - who is present (ie. using the word `YA` which means `OH !`, when addressing the Prophet (sallallahu `alaihi wasallam) eg. `Ya Nabi !, Ya Rasool !`)

The words `Ya` and `Ayyu` are for addressing. The one who is addressing is called Munadee and the addressee is called Munadaa. If the Munadaa has the quality of hearing then the addressing would be `Real`, like calling a person who is present: Ya Zaid !, and if the Munadaa cannot hear then the addressing will be metaphorical, like : Oh sky! Oh earth! Oh mountain!

In the book Sharh Jami, which is a set book for the Maulvi Degree, it is written : Munadaa means to address or call the attention for real, like: Oh Zaid! or metaphorically, like Oh Sky! Oh Earth! Because the person or the thing is established which can be addressed then the word of address is affixed to it. By this general law of Arabic grammar is known that it is not necessary for the addressed to hear, to permit the addresser to use the word `Ya`.

So it is seen that we are allowed to address even inanimate things. Rasoolullah (sallallahu `alaihi wasallam) on the other hand, is alive, and hears the Salaam and so it is obvious that he can be addressed using the Nida`.Some individuals say that it is Shirk (attributing partners to Allahu Ta`aala) to use words like Ya Nabi ! and Ya Rasool! They say this because they believe that the Prophet (sallallu `alaihi wasallam) cannot hear and is not presentso one should not call to him as if he can hear and is present. (This is answered in this chapter and next)