Job (Hebrew ???????, Arabic: ????, Standard Hebrew Iyyov, Tiberian Hebrew ?Iyyô?), was the protagonist of the Book of Job in the Hebrew Bible. In brief, the book begins with an introduction to Job`s character - he is described as a rich, blessed man who fears God and lives righteously. Satan, however, challenges Job`s integrity, and so God gives Job into Satan`s hand, ending in tragedy for Job: the loss of his children, wealth, and physical soundness. The main portion of the text consists of the discourse of Job and his three friends concerning why Job was so punished, ending in God answering Job. Job is also a prophet in Islam.
In the Hebrew Bible
Job is a figure in the Hebrew Bible, his story concentrated in the book bearing his name. Described as upright, virtuous, and religious, he was wealthy in terms of slaves and cattle, which at the time were the principal wealth of princes in Arabia and Edom. He is said to have lived in the land of Uz. He had seven sons and three daughters and was "the greatest man among all the people of the East." (Job 1:1-3)
His sons took turns entertaining each other with feasts; each time they completed a cycle of feast days, Job sent to them and purified them, offering burn-offerings for each one in case any of them had cursed God in their hearts. He was "blameless and upright; he feared God and shunned evil. His good character is discussed in depth later in the book.(Job 1:1;4,5)
In one assembly of the angels before God, Satan also comes, having patrolled the earth. Satan asserts that Job does not really love God, but fears God for blessing. To show that this is not so, God tested Job by giving Satan power over his property and family. In rapid succession, Job is suddenly informed by four servants of four different tragedies to strike his household. First, Sabeans slaughtered his servants and took away his oxen and donkeys. Second, a fire from heaven had consumed his sheep and servants with them. Third, the Chaldeans formed raiding parties and carried away his camels, killing the servants with them. Fourth and finally, a mighty wind brought down the house his sons and daughters were eating in, collapsing on and killing them all. Each time, only the servant delivering the message had escaped the catastrophe. (Job 1:6-19)
Job responded by tearing his clothes and shaving his head, and began to worship, saying, "Naked I came from my mother`s womb, and naked I will depart. The LORD gave and the LORD has taken away; may the name of the LORD be praised." In all this Job did not sin by charging God with wrongdoing. (Job 1:20-22)
Job maintained his righteousness despite his loss, but Satan was still unsatisfied. Therefore, he received permission to afflict Job`s person, though he could not take his life. So, Job became diseased with painful sores all over his body. Job was forced to relieve the pain by scraping himself with a piece of broken pottery. His wife incited him to "curse God, and die" but Job answered "Shall we receive good at the hand of God, and shall we not receive evil?" Even then Job did not sin by cursing God. (Job 2:1-10)
Some of Job`s friends learned of his misfortunes and came to visit him. These were Eliphaz the Temanite, Bildad the Shuhite, and Zophar the Naamathite. A fourth was Elihu the Buzite; from Chapter 32 bears a distinguished part in the