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 Women, Hijab, Marriage, and Violence

Women, Hijab, Marriage, and Violence
Excerpts from book "Al-Halal wal-Haram fil Islam" by Yusuf al-Qaradawi

The Halal and Haram in Marriage
No Monasticism in Islam
Seeing the Woman to Whom One Proposes Marriage
Prohibited Proposals
The Consent of the Girl
Women to Whom Marriage is Prohibited
Marriages Prohibited by Reason of Fosterage
In-Law Relationships
Sisters as Co-Wives
Married Women
Mushrik Women
Marriage to the Women of the People of the Book
The Prohibition of a Muslim Woman`s Marrying a Non-Muslim Man
Fornicatresses
Temporary Marriage (Mut`ah)
Marrying More than One Women
Justice Among Wives - A Condition
Why Marriage to More than One Woman in Permitted in Islam
Niqaab or Hijab
Nurturing Daughters
Khulaa (Asking for Divorce)
Violence Against Women
1. No Monasticism in Islam
The stand of Islam is, on the one hand, against sexual license; consequently it prohibits fornication and adultery, and blocks all ways leading to them. On the other hand, Islam is also against suppressing the sexual urge; accordingly, it calls people toward marriage, prohibiting renunciation and castration. (Renunciation means remaining celibate and renouncing worldly activity for the sake of devoting oneself to the worship of God. Castration denotes suppressing sexual desire by removing the testicles.)

As long as he possesses the means to marry, the Muslim is not permitted to refrain from marriage on the grounds that he has dedicated himself to the service or the worship of Allah and to a life of monasticism and renunciation of the world.

The Prophet (peace be on him) noted a tendency toward monasticism among some of his Companions. Declaring this to be a deviation from the straight path of Islam and a rejection of his sunnah (recommended practice), he thereby rid Islam`s conceptual framework of such a Christian notion. Abu Qulabah narrated "Some of the Companions of the Prophet (peace be on him) decided to relinquish the world, forsake their wives, and become like monks. The Prophet (peace be on him) told them with asperity, People before you perished because of their asceticism; they made excessive demands on themselves until Allah brought hardships on them: you can still see a few of them remaining in monasteries and temples. Then worship Allah and do not associate anything with Him, perform the Hajj and the `Umrah, be righteous, and all affairs will be set right for you." (Reported by `Abdur Razzaq, Ibn Jarir, and Ibn al-Mundhir.)

Abu Qulabah said the following verse was revealed concerning them: O you who believe! Do not make haram the good of things which Allah has made halal for you, and do not transgress; indeed, Allah does not like transgressors. (5:90 (87)) Mujahid narrated, "Some people, including `Uthman Ibn Maz`un and `Abdullah Ibn `Umar, intended to renounce their wives, castrate themselves, and wear coarse clothing. Then the above verse and the verse following it were revealed." (Reported by Ibn Jarir in his Tafsir.)

It is reported by al-Bukhari and others that three people came to the Prophet`s wives and asked how the Prophet (peace be on him) conducted his worship. When they were told about it, they seemed to consider it but little, saying, "What a difference there is between us and the Messenger of Allah (peace be on him), whose past and future sins have been forgiven him by Allah!" One of them said, "As for me, I will always pray during the night." The other said, "I will have nothing to do with women and will never marry." When the Prophet (peace be on him) heard about this, he explained to them their error and deviation from the straight path, saying, I am the one who fears Allah the most among you, yet I fast and I break my fast, I pray and I sleep, and I marry women. He who turns away from my sunnah has nothing to do with me. S`ad Ibn Abi Waqqas said, Allah`s Messenger (peace be on him) objected to `Uthman Ibn Maz`un living in celibacy. If he had given him permission (to do so), we (others) would have had ourselves castrated. (Reported by al-Bukhari and Muslim.) Addressing the young men of all times, the Prophet (peace be on him) said, `Young men, those of you who can support a wife should marry, for it keeps you from looking at women and preserves your chastity.` (Reported by al-Bukhari.) From this statement some scholars have inferred that marriage is obligatory for the Muslim who is able to support a wife and that the avoidance of it is not permissible, while other scholars add the further condition for its obligator ness that he should be afraid of falling into sin.

In fact, it is not befitting that a Muslim should refrain from marriage out of fear of poverty or of not being able to meet his obligations. He should make every possible attempt to find employment, seeking help from Allah, for He has promised to help